Although many Canadian dairies do not practice tail docking it is an animal welfare issues and now research has proven that tail docking really has no benefit. Prior to the study farmers believed that chopping off cows tails would benefit by improving cow cleanliness, cleaner cows that are less prone to disease infection and working contracting leptospirosis. The study concluded that cows who have their tail docked are no cleaners than those with full length. Nor do cows with short tails have reduced susceptibility to infection and cannot transmit diseases to workers. Studies found that tail docking is painful to the animals, as well as can contribute to nerve damage to the cow’s tail head. The cows can also no longer use their tails as natural fly swatters. Tail docking has been outlawed in many European countries and in California just last year.